Interesting article on the economics of nuclear (and implications for solar, wind, and fossil fuels) surrounding the proposed closure of one of the last nuclear plants in California :
A nice study was recently published in Nature on the use of super-resolution fluorescence-based imaging and scanning photocurrent microscopy to study sub-particle reaction rates on TiO2 nanorods:
very neat measurements!
“In the three months ending March 31, there were 1,665 megawatts (MW) of solar power plants[added to the US power grid] — accounting for 64% of total capacity additions — more than coal, natural gas and nuclear combined”
the article goes on to note that there are currently 26 GW of solar installed in the US. By the end of the year it is expected there will be 40.5 GW, over 3% of the net US generating capacity.
A technoeconomic analysis on solar hydrogen production was recently published in Energy. Environ. Sci. by Shaner, et al. (Energy. Environ. Sci., 2016, Advance Article). The levelized cost of hydrogen was compared between photovoltaic-electrolyzers (PV-E), photoelectrochemical cells (PECs), and fossil fuel derived hydrogen using steam methane reforming (SMR).
This paper highlights the strengths of PEC systems and outlines the challenges which must be met in order for the technology to become viable. One way to make solar hydrogen production competitive with SMR is to tax the carbon dioxide that is produced. They estimate that for the current PEC technology to achieve hydrogen price parity with SMR, a carbon tax of $1000/ton C02 is required. If a solar concentrator PEC is used, the estimated tax decreases to $800/ton CO2.
A winning bid to install solar PV panels at Dubai’s solar power park (which will eventually reach 5 GW capacity by 2030!) came in at 2.99 cents/kWh- a world record:
This data point is a little unique due to the scale of the project, but continues a trend of ever-decreasing costs of solar-produced electricity that are far below grid prices. As solar market penetration increases, this represents a huge opportunity for electrochemical technologies to turn this low cost “clean” electricity into fuels and chemicals.
This is an interesting article in the Economist from earlier this year discussing the world’s supply and price of Lithium-carbonate salts, the key ingredient for Li-ion batteries such as those going into the new electric vehicles:
As discussed in the article, global supplies of Li are limited and Li production is concentrated in a small handful of countries. Elon Musk, the founder and CEO of Tesla motors, which is aiming to scale up its production of the Tesla Model 3 to 500,000 cars/year by 2020, has noted that “in order to produce a half million cars per year…we would basically need to absorb the entire world’s lithium-ion production.” (source)
Li-ion batteries are not the only clean energy technology that rely on increasingly scarce elements. Fuel cells and electrolyzers – key technologies for a potential Hydrogen economy- currently rely heavily on expensive precious metal catalysts such as Platinum and Iridium. For this reason, the development of new earth-abundant catalytic and electrode materials for these technologies is of critical importance for renewable energy to reach the terawatt energy scales.
For a more comprehensive discussion on the global supplies and production rates of key elements for renewable energy technologies, this is a nice review article from a few years ago:
Addressing the terawatt challenge: scalability in the supply of chemical elements for renewable energy
RSC Adv., 2012,2, 7933-7947
The recent growth in solar and closure of coal plants in recent years has lead to instances this year where solar PV plants generated more electricity than coal in the united kingdom (UK):s
The UK plans to phase out coal by 2025. According to the article, about 14% of the UK generating capacity is now solar.
Here is a recent perspective on (moving away from) fossil fuels in FORTUNE magazine by Prof. Mark Barteau at the University of Michigan:
As discussed in the article, two common arguments for moving away from fossil fuels have been i.) fossil fuels are quickly running out and ii.) high use of fossil fuels makes us highly dependent on foreign oil reserves. However, developments over the past 10 years or so, including the tremendous growth of fracking in the US, have made both issues less urgent than they have seemed to be in the past. Furthermore, it’s likely that we will remain in this state for a while. If society is going to make a meaningful transition away from a fossil fuel based energy system in a in the near future, it needs to be driven by a conscious effort to do so for the sake of the environment and climate. As noted at the end of the article, it is tempting to continue to reap the short-term profits of cheap and abundant fossil fuels, but there is also a huge opportunity to utilize the financial benefits of cheap oil to help accelerate the transition to a truly sustainable energy system.
In a recent paper in Energy. Environ. Sci. Döscher, et al. examine various contributions to error in reporting solar-to-hydrogen efficiency (Energy Environ. Sci., 2016,9, 74-80). They examine an array of factors including the spectral distribution of flux and how differences in intensity at specific wavelengths influence the overall performance of water-splitting photoelectrodes.
Their findings suggest a key set of experimental precautions to avoid when performing photoelectrochemical experiments in order to limit experimental error: disclosure of the light source configuration, precise definition of device area and illumination area, measuring the quantum efficiency and correlating it with the solar-generation potential, and accurate measurement of Faradaic efficiency to understand potential side reactions.